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For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found understanding might then be used by engineers to produce brand-new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced innovation. In this sense, researchers and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and referral. The specific relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the argument can inform the funding of basic and used science.
An articulation of this philosophy might be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs need constant additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This necessary brand-new understanding can be gotten only through basic scientific research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific jobs (initiatives withstood by the clinical community). The concern remains controversial, though a lot of analysts resist the model that innovation is a result of clinical research.
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Making use of tools by early humans was partly a procedure of discovery and of development. Early people progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern-day human beings. Tool use stayed relatively the same for the majority of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years earlier, making use of tools and complex set of habits emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be linked to the development of completely contemporary language.