Innovation is frequently a repercussion of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the 2 fields. For example, science might study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge might then be utilized by engineers to produce brand-new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other types of advanced technology.
The precise relations between science and technology, in specific, have actually been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can inform the financing of standard and applied science. In the instant wake of The second world war, for example, it was widely considered in the United States that technology was merely "used science" which to fund basic science was to reap technological outcomes in due time.
This essential new knowledge can be acquired only through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (efforts withstood by the scientific community). The problem remains contentious, though most experts resist the model that innovation is an outcome of scientific research study.
Early people progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern-day humans. Tool usage stayed reasonably unchanged for many of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years back, using tools and complex set of habits emerged, believed by lots of archaeologists to be linked to the emergence of fully modern-day language.
The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but roughly 75,000 years ago, pressure flaking supplied a method to make much finer work. The discovery and use of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind.
Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, permitted early humans to prepare their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and expanding the variety of foods that could be eaten. Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic age were clothes and shelter; the adoption of both technologies can not be dated precisely, however they were a key to humankind's development.