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For example, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge might then be used by engineers to produce brand-new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of innovative innovation. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the 3 fields are often considered as one for the functions of research and recommendation. The specific relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have actually been disputed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part due to the fact that the dispute can inform the funding of basic and applied science.
An expression of this philosophy might be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New items, brand-new industries, and more tasks need continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This necessary brand-new understanding can be acquired just through basic clinical research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for particular jobs (initiatives resisted by the clinical neighborhood). The issue stays contentious, though the majority of analysts withstand the design that innovation is an outcome of scientific research.