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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found understanding might then be utilized by engineers to create new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced innovation. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are typically thought about as one for the functions of research and recommendation. The specific relations between science and innovation, in particular, have actually been discussed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the argument can notify the funding of standard and used science.
An articulation of this approach might be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, brand-new industries, and more tasks require constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new knowledge can be gotten just through basic clinical research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for particular jobs (efforts resisted by the clinical community). The problem remains contentious, though the majority of experts resist the model that technology is an outcome of scientific research.