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The development of innovation may draw upon numerous fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to attain some practical result. Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the 2 fields. For instance, science may study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and understanding.
In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be thought about technologists; the three fields are frequently thought about as one for the functions of research study and referral. The precise relations between science and innovation, in particular, have been discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the argument can notify the financing of standard and used science.
An articulation of this approach could be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New items, new markets, and more tasks need continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This important new understanding can be obtained only through standard scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for specific jobs (efforts resisted by the scientific community).
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History Paleolithic (2. 5 Ma 10 ka) Using tools by early people was partly a procedure of discovery and of advancement. Early human beings developed from a types of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass around one third of modern-day human beings. Tool usage stayed fairly the same for the majority of early human history.
Stone tools A campfire, typically utilized to cook food Hominids began using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but roughly 75,000 years back, pressure flaking provided a way to make much finer work. Fire The discovery and use of fire, a basic energy source with lots of profound uses, was a turning point in the technological development of mankind.
Fire, sustained with wood and charcoal, enabled early human beings to cook their food to increase its digestibility, enhancing its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that might be consumed. Clothes and shelter Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic period were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies can not be dated precisely, but they were an essential to humanity's progress.