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The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, consisting of scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to attain some useful result. Innovation is typically a consequence of science and engineering, although innovation as a human activity precedes the 2 fields. For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge.
In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research study and reference. The precise relations between science and technology, in specific, have actually been discussed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the argument can inform the financing of basic and used science.
An articulation of this approach could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, brand-new markets, and more jobs need constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This vital new knowledge can be gotten just through standard clinical research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for specific jobs (initiatives resisted by the clinical community).
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History Paleolithic (2. 5 Ma 10 ka) The usage of tools by early people was partly a process of discovery and of advancement. Early humans progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass roughly one third of contemporary human beings. Tool use remained relatively the same for most of early human history.
Stone tools A campfire, often used to cook food Hominids started using primitive stone tools millions of years ago. The earliest stone tools were bit more than a fractured rock, but approximately 75,000 years back, pressure flaking supplied a method to make much finer work. Fire The discovery and use of fire, a basic energy source with lots of profound usages, was a turning point in the technological advancement of mankind.
Fire, sustained with wood and charcoal, enabled early people to prepare their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient worth and widening the variety of foods that might be eaten. Clothes and shelter Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both innovations can not be dated exactly, but they were a crucial to humanity's development.