Researchers and engineers typically choose to define innovation as applied science, instead of as the important things that people make and utilize. More recently, scholars have obtained from European theorists of "strategy" to extend the meaning of technology to numerous types of critical factor, as in Foucault's work on innovations of the self (methods de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have used a range of definitions. The offers a definition of the term: "the usage of science in industry, engineering, and so on, to develop beneficial things or to fix issues" and "a maker, tool, approach, etc., that is produced by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real Life of Technology" lecture, offered another definition of the principle; it is "practice, the method we do things around here." The term is typically used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high innovation or simply customer electronic devices, instead of technology as a whole.
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In this use, innovation refers to tools and devices that might be used to resolve real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that might include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complicated machines, such as a spaceport station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be product; virtual innovation, such as computer software application and service methods, fall under this definition of technology. W. Brian Arthur defines innovation in a similarly broad way as "a way to satisfy a human function." The word "innovation" can also be utilized to describe a collection of methods.
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When combined with another term, such as "medical innovation" or "area technology," it describes the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art technology" describes the high innovation available to mankind in any field. Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or alters culture. Furthermore, technology is the application of mathematics, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. A contemporary example is the rise of communication technology, which has reduced barriers to human interaction and as an outcome has helped generate new subcultures; the increase of cyberculture has at its basis the development of the Web and the computer.