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For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge may then be utilized by engineers to develop new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other kinds of sophisticated innovation. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the 3 fields are typically considered as one for the functions of research and referral. The specific relations between science and innovation, in particular, have actually been discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the argument can notify the funding of fundamental and applied science.
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An articulation of this approach might be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New products, brand-new markets, and more tasks need constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new understanding can be obtained just through standard scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for particular tasks (initiatives withstood by the clinical neighborhood). The problem stays controversial, though the majority of experts resist the design that technology is an outcome of scientific research.