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For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be utilized by engineers to develop new tools and makers such as semiconductors, computers, and other kinds of innovative technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are typically considered as one for the purposes of research study and recommendation. The specific relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have been discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can notify the financing of standard and used science.
An articulation of this philosophy could be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New products, brand-new industries, and more tasks need constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new knowledge can be gotten just through standard scientific research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for particular tasks (efforts withstood by the scientific neighborhood). The problem remains controversial, though many analysts resist the design that technology is a result of clinical research.