Scientists and engineers usually choose to specify innovation as applied science, instead of as the important things that individuals make and use. More recently, scholars have actually borrowed from European philosophers of "method" to extend the meaning of innovation to various forms of critical reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self (strategies de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have used a range of meanings. The offers a definition of the term: "making use of science in industry, engineering, and so on, to develop beneficial things or to solve problems" and "a machine, piece of equipment, technique, etc., that is created by innovation." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real Life of Innovation" lecture, gave another definition of the principle; it is "practice, the method we do things around here." The term is frequently utilized to indicate a specific field of innovation, or to describe high innovation or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole.
In this usage, innovation describes tools and devices that might be used to solve real-world problems. It is a significant term that may consist of easy tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex devices, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be product; virtual technology, such as computer system software and organization approaches, fall under this definition of innovation. W. Brian Arthur specifies innovation in a similarly broad way as "a method to meet a human purpose." The word "technology" can also be utilized to describe a collection of methods.
When combined with another term, such as "medical innovation" or "space innovation," it refers to the state of the particular field's understanding and tools. "State-of-the-art innovation" describes the high technology offered to mankind in any field. Technology can be seen as an activity that forms or changes culture. Additionally, innovation is the application of mathematics, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is understood. A modern-day example is the increase of interaction technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and as an outcome has assisted spawn brand-new subcultures; the increase of cyberculture has at its basis the advancement of the Web and the computer system.