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Innovation is often a consequence of science and engineering, although innovation as a human activity precedes the two fields. For instance, science may study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding may then be used by engineers to produce brand-new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of innovative technology.
The exact relations between science and innovation, in particular, have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the argument can notify the financing of standard and used science. In the instant wake of The second world war, for example, it was commonly considered in the United States that innovation was just "used science" which to money fundamental science was to gain technological results in due time.
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This necessary brand-new knowledge can be gotten just through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for particular tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The concern remains controversial, though a lot of analysts resist the design that innovation is a result of clinical research study.
Early people evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass around one third of contemporary people. Tool use remained reasonably the same for the majority of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years earlier, using tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, thought by many archaeologists to be connected to the development of fully modern language.
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The earliest stone tools were little bit more than a fractured rock, however roughly 75,000 years earlier, pressure flaking offered a way to make much finer work. The discovery and use of fire, a basic energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of mankind.
Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early human beings to prepare their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and expanding the number of foods that could be consumed. Other technological advances made throughout the Paleolithic age were clothes and shelter; the adoption of both technologies can not be dated precisely, however they were an essential to humankind's progress.