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For example, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to develop brand-new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other kinds of advanced innovation. In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are typically considered as one for the purposes of research and recommendation. The precise relations in between science and technology, in particular, have actually been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the dispute can inform the financing of fundamental and used science.
An articulation of this viewpoint might be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New items, brand-new markets, and more jobs require constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This necessary new understanding can be acquired just through basic scientific research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for specific tasks (efforts withstood by the clinical community). The concern stays contentious, though a lot of analysts resist the design that technology is a result of scientific research.
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Using tools by early human beings was partly a process of discovery and of advancement. Early people progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of contemporary human beings. Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. Roughly 50,000 years ago, using tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, believed by numerous archaeologists to be connected to the development of totally contemporary language.