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For example, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found understanding might then be used by engineers to produce new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced innovation. In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the 3 fields are often thought about as one for the purposes of research and reference. The exact relations between science and technology, in particular, have actually been discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the argument can inform the funding of standard and used science.
An expression of this approach might be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New items, new industries, and more tasks require continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This essential new knowledge can be acquired just through fundamental scientific research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for particular tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The concern remains contentious, though many experts withstand the model that innovation is a result of clinical research.
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Using tools by early human beings was partially a process of discovery and of advancement. Early people progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern human beings. Tool use stayed reasonably unchanged for the majority of early human history. Roughly 50,000 years ago, making use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, thought by numerous archaeologists to be connected to the development of totally modern-day language.