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For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding might then be used by engineers to create brand-new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computers, and other types of innovative technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research study and recommendation. The exact relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have been discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part due to the fact that the argument can notify the funding of fundamental and applied science.
An articulation of this philosophy might be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more tasks need constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This necessary brand-new understanding can be obtained just through basic clinical research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for particular jobs (efforts withstood by the clinical neighborhood). The problem stays contentious, though many analysts resist the model that innovation is a result of clinical research.