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The usage of the term "technology" has actually altered considerably over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and it was used either to describe the description or research study of the beneficial arts or to point to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861). The term "technology" increased to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the 2nd Industrial Revolution. The term's significances altered in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German idea of into "innovation." In German and other European languages, a difference exists in between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which typically equates both terms as "innovation." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not just to the research study of the industrial arts but to the commercial arts themselves.
Scientists and engineers generally choose to specify technology as used science, rather than as the important things that individuals make and utilize. More recently, scholars have actually obtained from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the significance of innovation to numerous types of important reason, as in Foucault's deal with innovations of the self (techniques de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have offered a range of definitions. The deals a definition of the term: "using science in market, engineering, etc., to develop useful things or to resolve problems" and "a maker, tool, approach, etc., that is developed by innovation." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Genuine World of Technology" lecture, gave another meaning of the concept; it is "practice, the method we do things around here." The term is typically used to indicate a specific field of innovation, or to refer to high technology or just customer electronics, instead of innovation as a whole.