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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding might then be utilized by engineers to develop brand-new tools and makers such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other kinds of innovative technology. In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are typically considered as one for the functions of research and referral. The exact relations between science and technology, in particular, have been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the argument can inform the financing of standard and applied science.
An articulation of this approach could be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New items, brand-new markets, and more jobs require constant additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new understanding can be obtained only through fundamental scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for particular tasks (initiatives resisted by the clinical community). The problem remains controversial, though many analysts withstand the model that innovation is a result of scientific research study.