Researchers and engineers generally choose to define technology as applied science, instead of as the things that people make and use. More just recently, scholars have obtained from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of innovation to various types of important reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self (strategies de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have actually offered a variety of meanings. The deals a definition of the term: "the use of science in industry, engineering, etc., to develop useful things or to fix issues" and "a machine, piece of devices, method, etc., that is produced by innovation." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real Life of Technology" lecture, offered another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the method we do things around here." The term is typically used to suggest a particular field of technology, or to describe high technology or simply customer electronic devices, rather than technology as a whole.
In this use, innovation describes tools and machines that might be used to fix real-world problems. It is a far-reaching term that might consist of basic tools, such as a crowbar or wood spoon, or more intricate makers, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and devices need not be product; virtual innovation, such as computer software and company techniques, fall under this definition of innovation. W. Brian Arthur defines innovation in a similarly broad way as "a means to meet a human purpose." The word "innovation" can also be used to refer to a collection of methods.
When integrated with another term, such as "medical innovation" or "area technology," it describes the state of the particular field's knowledge and tools. "State-of-the-art innovation" describes the high innovation available to humankind in any field. Technology can be deemed an activity that forms or changes culture. Furthermore, innovation is the application of mathematics, science, and the arts for the advantage of life as it is known. A modern example is the increase of interaction innovation, which has minimized barriers to human interaction and as a result has actually assisted spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has at its basis the advancement of the Web and the computer system.