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For instance, science may study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found understanding might then be used by engineers to develop new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computers, and other kinds of advanced innovation. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the three fields are often considered as one for the functions of research study and recommendation. The exact relations in between science and innovation, in specific, have actually been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can inform the funding of standard and applied science.
An expression of this viewpoint might be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New items, brand-new industries, and more tasks need constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This essential new understanding can be acquired only through fundamental clinical research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for particular jobs (initiatives withstood by the scientific community). The issue remains controversial, though the majority of experts withstand the model that technology is an outcome of scientific research study.
Making use of tools by early humans was partially a process of discovery and of evolution. Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern people. Tool use stayed fairly unchanged for the majority of early human history. Around 50,000 years earlier, the usage of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, thought by lots of archaeologists to be linked to the emergence of completely modern language.