The development of innovation may bring into play many fields of knowledge, including clinical, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historic understanding, to accomplish some practical outcome. Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the 2 fields. For instance, science might study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding.
In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are typically thought about as one for the purposes of research and recommendation. The specific relations in between science and technology, in specific, have actually been disputed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can notify the funding of standard and used science.
An expression of this approach might be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, brand-new industries, and more tasks require continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This necessary brand-new understanding can be obtained only through standard scientific research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for specific jobs (initiatives withstood by the scientific neighborhood).
History Paleolithic (2. 5 Ma 10 ka) Using tools by early people was partially a procedure of discovery and of evolution. Early people evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern human beings. Tool use stayed reasonably unchanged for the majority of early human history.
Stone tools A campfire, often utilized to cook food Hominids began using primitive stone tools millions of years back. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, but roughly 75,000 years back, pressure flaking supplied a method to make much finer work. Fire The discovery and use of fire, a simple energy source with many extensive uses, was a turning point in the technological development of mankind.
Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, enhancing its nutrient value and widening the variety of foods that might be consumed. Clothes and shelter Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both innovations can not be dated exactly, however they were a crucial to mankind's progress.