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For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found understanding may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other kinds of sophisticated technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and recommendation. The exact relations between science and technology, in specific, have actually been disputed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the dispute can inform the financing of basic and used science.
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An expression of this approach could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New products, brand-new markets, and more tasks require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This important new understanding can be acquired only through fundamental scientific research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for particular tasks (initiatives withstood by the scientific community). The issue remains controversial, though a lot of analysts resist the design that innovation is a result of scientific research.
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Using tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of development. Early human beings progressed from a types of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of contemporary humans. Tool use stayed fairly unchanged for most of early human history. Roughly 50,000 years earlier, the use of tools and complex set of habits emerged, believed by lots of archaeologists to be linked to the development of fully modern language.