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The earliest known built highways are the stone-paved streets of the city-state of Ur, dating to circa 4000 BCE and wood roadways leading through the swamps of Glastonbury, England, dating to around the exact same time duration. The very first long-distance road, which came into use around 3500 BCE, spanned 1,500 miles from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea, but was not paved and was just partially kept.
Unlike the earlier roadway, the Minoan roadway was completely paved. Pipes Ancient Minoan personal houses had running water. A bath tub practically similar to modern-day ones was unearthed at the Palace of Knossos. A number of Minoan personal homes also had toilets, which could be flushed by putting thin down the drain. The ancient Romans had many public flush toilets, which cleared into a comprehensive sewer system.
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The ancient Romans likewise had a complex system of aqueducts, which were used to carry water across cross countries. The first Roman aqueduct was constructed in 312 BCE. The eleventh and final ancient Roman aqueduct was developed in 226 CE. Put together, the Roman aqueducts crossed 450 kilometers, but less than seventy kilometers of this was above ground and supported by arches.
Developments continued through the Middle Ages with developments such as silk-manufacture (introduced into Europe after centuries of advancement in Asia), the horse collar and horseshoes in the first few a century after the 5th-century fall of the Roman Empire. Middle ages technology saw the usage of basic machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the sheave) being combined to form more complex tools, such as the wheelbarrow, windmills and clocks, and a system of universities developed and spread out scientific concepts and practices.
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Advances in innovation in this age permitted a more trusted supply of food, followed by the wider accessibility of durable goods. The automobile revolutionized personal transport. Beginning in the United Kingdom in the 18th century, the Industrial Revolution was a duration of fantastic technological discovery, particularly in the areas of agriculture, producing, mining, metallurgy, and transport, driven by the discovery of steam power and the widespread application of the factory system.