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For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to produce new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other forms of advanced innovation. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are frequently thought about as one for the functions of research study and reference. The specific relations between science and technology, in specific, have been discussed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part due to the fact that the argument can inform the financing of fundamental and applied science.
An expression of this approach might be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New products, brand-new industries, and more tasks require continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new knowledge can be acquired only through fundamental clinical research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for particular jobs (initiatives resisted by the clinical community). The concern remains contentious, though the majority of analysts resist the model that innovation is a result of scientific research.
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The use of tools by early humans was partially a procedure of discovery and of advancement. Early humans developed from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans. Tool usage stayed fairly unchanged for the majority of early human history. Around 50,000 years back, the use of tools and complex set of habits emerged, thought by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of completely modern-day language.