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The development of innovation may draw upon many fields of understanding, including clinical, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historic knowledge, to accomplish some practical result. Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For example, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding.
In this sense, researchers and engineers might both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are typically considered as one for the purposes of research study and recommendation. The exact relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have actually been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can inform the funding of fundamental and used science.
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An articulation of this viewpoint might be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, new markets, and more tasks require constant additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This necessary new understanding can be gotten just through basic scientific research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for particular tasks (initiatives withstood by the scientific neighborhood).
History Paleolithic (2. 5 Ma 10 ka) Using tools by early human beings was partially a process of discovery and of advancement. Early humans developed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass roughly one third of modern-day human beings. Tool use remained fairly unchanged for the majority of early human history.
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Stone tools A campfire, often utilized to prepare food Hominids started utilizing primitive stone tools countless years earlier. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, however roughly 75,000 years ago, pressure flaking provided a method to make much finer work. Fire The discovery and use of fire, an easy energy source with numerous extensive uses, was a turning point in the technological advancement of humankind.
Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, permitted early human beings to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient worth and expanding the number of foods that might be consumed. Clothing and shelter Other technological advances made throughout the Paleolithic era were clothes and shelter; the adoption of both innovations can not be dated exactly, however they were an essential to mankind's progress.