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Making use of the term "technology" has actually changed significantly over the last 200 years. Prior to the 20th century, the term was unusual in English, and it was used either to refer to the description or study of the helpful arts or to mention technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861). The term "innovation" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. The term's significances altered in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, equated concepts from the German principle of into "innovation." In German and other European languages, a difference exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which normally translates both terms as "innovation." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not just to the research study of the industrial arts however to the commercial arts themselves.
Scientists and engineers typically choose to define technology as applied science, rather than as the important things that people make and utilize. More just recently, scholars have borrowed from European theorists of "strategy" to extend the significance of technology to numerous kinds of instrumental factor, as in Foucault's deal with technologies of the self (techniques de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have actually provided a variety of definitions. The deals a definition of the term: "making use of science in market, engineering, and so on, to invent helpful things or to solve issues" and "a device, piece of equipment, method, and so on, that is created by innovation." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, offered another definition of the idea; it is "practice, the method we do things around here." The term is typically used to indicate a specific field of technology, or to describe high technology or just consumer electronic devices, instead of technology as a whole.