For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found understanding might then be utilized by engineers to develop new tools and makers such as semiconductors, computers, and other kinds of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the three fields are typically considered as one for the functions of research and referral. The specific relations between science and technology, in particular, have been disputed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the dispute can inform the funding of fundamental and applied science.
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An expression of this philosophy could be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs require constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This necessary new understanding can be acquired only through basic clinical research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for specific tasks (efforts resisted by the clinical community). The issue remains contentious, though most analysts withstand the design that technology is a result of clinical research study.
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Using tools by early people was partially a process of discovery and of development. Early people progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass around one third of modern humans. Tool usage stayed fairly unchanged for many of early human history. Approximately 50,000 years earlier, making use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, thought by many archaeologists to be connected to the development of totally modern-day language.