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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge might then be used by engineers to create brand-new tools and makers such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other kinds of innovative innovation. In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are frequently thought about as one for the purposes of research study and recommendation. The specific relations between science and technology, in specific, have been debated by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can notify the funding of standard and applied science.
An expression of this philosophy might be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, brand-new markets, and more tasks need continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new understanding can be acquired just through basic clinical research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The problem stays controversial, though a lot of analysts withstand the model that innovation is a result of scientific research study.