Making use of the term "technology" has altered substantially over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and it was used either to describe the description or study of the helpful arts or to mention technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Innovation (chartered in 1861). The term "innovation" increased to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the 2nd Industrial Transformation. The term's meanings altered in the early 20th century when American social researchers, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, equated concepts from the German principle of into "technology." In German and other European languages, a difference exists in between technik and technologie that is missing in English, which usually translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not just to the research study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves.
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Scientists and engineers generally choose to specify technology as used science, rather than as the things that people make and utilize. More recently, scholars have actually obtained from European thinkers of "method" to extend the meaning of innovation to numerous forms of crucial reason, as in Foucault's deal with innovations of the self (strategies de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. The offers a meaning of the term: "using science in market, engineering, and so on, to create beneficial things or to solve problems" and "a device, piece of equipment, approach, and so on, that is produced by technology." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real Life of Technology" lecture, gave another meaning of the idea; it is "practice, the way we do things around here." The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high innovation or simply customer electronic devices, instead of technology as a whole.