The development of innovation may bring into play many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical understanding, to achieve some useful outcome. Innovation is often an effect of science and engineering, although innovation as a human activity precedes the two fields. For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge.
In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are often thought about as one for the functions of research study and reference. The exact relations between science and innovation, in specific, have actually been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can notify the funding of fundamental and applied science.
An expression of this viewpoint might be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more tasks require continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This vital new understanding can be obtained only through fundamental scientific research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for particular jobs (efforts withstood by the scientific neighborhood).
History Paleolithic (2. 5 Ma 10 ka) The use of tools by early people was partly a process of discovery and of development. Early humans progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass roughly one third of contemporary people. Tool use stayed reasonably unchanged for most of early human history.
Stone tools A campfire, typically utilized to cook food Hominids began utilizing primitive stone tools millions of years back. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, however roughly 75,000 years earlier, pressure flaking supplied a way to make much finer work. Fire The discovery and usage of fire, an easy energy source with numerous profound uses, was a turning point in the technological advancement of mankind.
Fire, sustained with wood and charcoal, permitted early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient worth and widening the number of foods that could be eaten. Clothes and shelter Other technological advances made throughout the Paleolithic age were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both innovations can not be dated precisely, but they were a key to humanity's development.