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For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge might then be used by engineers to develop brand-new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other types of sophisticated innovation. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are frequently considered as one for the functions of research study and referral. The specific relations between science and technology, in particular, have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can notify the funding of basic and applied science.
An articulation of this viewpoint might be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New products, new markets, and more tasks need continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This important new knowledge can be acquired only through basic clinical research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for specific jobs (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). The issue stays controversial, though most experts withstand the design that innovation is an outcome of clinical research.