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For example, science might study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found understanding might then be utilized by engineers to create brand-new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other kinds of advanced technology. In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are often thought about as one for the functions of research study and referral. The precise relations between science and technology, in specific, have actually been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can notify the financing of fundamental and applied science.
An expression of this philosophy could be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New items, brand-new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new understanding can be gotten only through basic clinical research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for particular tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific neighborhood). The problem stays controversial, though many analysts resist the model that technology is a result of scientific research.