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For instance, science may study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge may then be utilized by engineers to develop brand-new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computers, and other kinds of innovative technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are frequently thought about as one for the functions of research study and reference. The specific relations in between science and technology, in specific, have been debated by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the dispute can notify the funding of basic and applied science.
An expression of this viewpoint could be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New items, new markets, and more jobs need constant additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This vital brand-new knowledge can be acquired just through fundamental scientific research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for particular tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific neighborhood). The concern remains controversial, though the majority of experts resist the design that technology is an outcome of scientific research study.