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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding may then be used by engineers to develop brand-new tools and makers such as semiconductors, computers, and other types of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the 3 fields are typically thought about as one for the functions of research and referral. The specific relations between science and technology, in specific, have been discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the dispute can inform the financing of standard and used science.
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An expression of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs need continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new knowledge can be obtained only through fundamental scientific research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for particular jobs (efforts resisted by the clinical community). The problem remains controversial, though the majority of analysts resist the model that technology is a result of scientific research study.
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The use of tools by early human beings was partly a process of discovery and of development. Early people progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass around one third of modern human beings. Tool usage remained reasonably unchanged for the majority of early human history. Roughly 50,000 years ago, the use of tools and complex set of habits emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be linked to the emergence of fully modern-day language.