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For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding might then be used by engineers to produce new tools and makers such as semiconductors, computers, and other kinds of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the 3 fields are often thought about as one for the functions of research and recommendation. The specific relations between science and technology, in particular, have actually been discussed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the argument can inform the financing of standard and used science.
An expression of this viewpoint might be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New products, brand-new markets, and more tasks require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new understanding can be acquired just through fundamental scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific jobs (efforts resisted by the scientific community). The problem stays contentious, though the majority of experts resist the design that innovation is a result of scientific research.
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The usage of tools by early human beings was partly a procedure of discovery and of advancement. Early people developed from a types of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of contemporary human beings. Tool use remained reasonably unchanged for the majority of early human history. Around 50,000 years earlier, making use of tools and complex set of habits emerged, thought by many archaeologists to be linked to the development of completely modern language.