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For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge might then be utilized by engineers to create new tools and makers such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other forms of sophisticated technology. In this sense, researchers and engineers might both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference. The specific relations between science and innovation, in particular, have been disputed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the dispute can inform the financing of basic and used science.
An expression of this viewpoint might be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more tasks require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This essential brand-new understanding can be gotten just through basic clinical research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for particular jobs (efforts withstood by the scientific community). The concern remains controversial, though most experts resist the design that technology is an outcome of clinical research.