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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge might then be used by engineers to develop new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other forms of advanced technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are typically considered as one for the functions of research and reference. The precise relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have actually been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part due to the fact that the argument can inform the financing of fundamental and used science.
An expression of this philosophy might be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New items, brand-new markets, and more tasks require continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This important brand-new understanding can be obtained just through standard scientific research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for specific tasks (initiatives withstood by the clinical community). The problem remains controversial, though many analysts resist the design that technology is an outcome of scientific research.