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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found knowledge might then be utilized by engineers to produce new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other types of sophisticated technology. In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the 3 fields are frequently considered as one for the purposes of research and referral. The exact relations between science and technology, in particular, have been disputed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the dispute can notify the financing of fundamental and applied science.
An expression of this philosophy might be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New items, new industries, and more tasks require constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This important new understanding can be obtained only through standard clinical research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for particular jobs (efforts withstood by the scientific neighborhood). The problem remains controversial, though most experts withstand the model that innovation is a result of scientific research study.
The usage of tools by early humans was partly a procedure of discovery and of advancement. Early humans progressed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass roughly one third of modern-day people. Tool use remained reasonably unchanged for many of early human history. Roughly 50,000 years earlier, the usage of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, thought by lots of archaeologists to be connected to the development of fully modern language.