The Best Guide To Technology - Inside Higher Ed
Making use of the term "technology" has altered considerably over the last 200 years. Prior to the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and it was utilized either to describe the description or research study of the useful arts or to point to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Innovation (chartered in 1861). The term "technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the 2nd Industrial Transformation. The term's meanings altered in the early 20th century when American social researchers, starting with Thorstein Veblen, equated concepts from the German idea of into "technology." In German and other European languages, a difference exists between technik and technologie that is missing in English, which typically translates both terms as "technology." By the 1930s, "innovation" referred not just to the study of the industrial arts but to the industrial arts themselves.
Researchers and engineers generally choose to specify technology as used science, rather than as the important things that people make and utilize. More just recently, scholars have borrowed from European theorists of "method" to extend the meaning of innovation to various forms of crucial factor, as in Foucault's work on innovations of the self (methods de soi). Dictionaries and scholars have offered a range of meanings. The offers a meaning of the term: "the use of science in market, engineering, etc., to create helpful things or to resolve problems" and "a maker, piece of devices, approach, etc., that is produced by innovation." Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real Life of Technology" lecture, provided another meaning of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here." The term is often used to imply a particular field of innovation, or to describe high technology or just customer electronics, rather than technology as a whole.