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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding might then be used by engineers to develop new tools and devices such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other forms of innovative technology. In this sense, researchers and engineers may both be considered technologists ; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and recommendation. The specific relations in between science and technology, in specific, have been disputed by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can notify the funding of standard and applied science.
An expression of this viewpoint could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New items, brand-new markets, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This vital brand-new understanding can be gotten just through fundamental clinical research study." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for particular jobs (efforts resisted by the scientific community). The issue stays controversial, though most experts resist the design that innovation is an outcome of scientific research.
Using tools by early human beings was partially a process of discovery and of advancement. Early people developed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass around one third of modern people. Tool use remained relatively the same for the majority of early human history. Roughly 50,000 years back, using tools and complex set of habits emerged, thought by numerous archaeologists to be connected to the introduction of fully contemporary language.