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For example, science may study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create brand-new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of innovative technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are often thought about as one for the purposes of research and recommendation. The exact relations between science and technology, in particular, have actually been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the debate can inform the funding of standard and applied science.
An expression of this viewpoint could be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more tasks need continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This essential new knowledge can be gotten just through basic clinical research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for particular jobs (efforts resisted by the clinical neighborhood). The issue remains contentious, though most experts withstand the model that technology is a result of scientific research study.