The development of innovation may bring into play numerous fields of understanding, consisting of clinical, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical understanding, to accomplish some useful outcome. Technology is typically a consequence of science and engineering, although innovation as a human activity precedes the two fields. For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge.
In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the 3 fields are frequently thought about as one for the purposes of research and reference. The specific relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have actually been debated by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part since the argument can notify the funding of basic and used science.
An expression of this philosophy might be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New items, new markets, and more tasks need constant additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This vital brand-new knowledge can be obtained just through fundamental scientific research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for particular jobs (efforts withstood by the clinical neighborhood).
History Paleolithic (2. 5 Ma 10 ka) Using tools by early humans was partially a process of discovery and of evolution. Early people developed from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass approximately one third of contemporary people. Tool usage stayed fairly unchanged for many of early human history.
Stone tools A campfire, often used to prepare food Hominids began utilizing primitive stone tools countless years earlier. The earliest stone tools were little more than a fractured rock, however approximately 75,000 years back, pressure flaking supplied a method to make much finer work. Fire The discovery and usage of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological advancement of mankind.
Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, permitted early people to cook their food to increase its digestibility, enhancing its nutrient value and widening the variety of foods that could be consumed. Clothing and shelter Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic period were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both innovations can not be dated precisely, but they were a key to humanity's progress.