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For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge might then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other types of innovative innovation. In this sense, researchers and engineers might both be thought about technologists ; the 3 fields are frequently thought about as one for the purposes of research and referral. The precise relations between science and technology, in specific, have actually been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the dispute can notify the financing of fundamental and used science.
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An expression of this viewpoint could be found clearly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New items, brand-new markets, and more jobs need continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This vital new understanding can be acquired just through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for particular jobs (efforts withstood by the clinical neighborhood). The problem stays controversial, though many analysts withstand the model that innovation is a result of clinical research study.