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For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge might then be utilized by engineers to develop brand-new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other types of sophisticated technology. In this sense, researchers and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the 3 fields are often considered as one for the functions of research and reference. The specific relations between science and innovation, in specific, have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can notify the funding of basic and used science.
An articulation of this viewpoint might be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New products, new markets, and more jobs need continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature ... This vital brand-new knowledge can be acquired only through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, nevertheless, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for specific tasks (efforts resisted by the scientific neighborhood). The issue stays contentious, though many analysts withstand the model that technology is an outcome of scientific research study.
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The use of tools by early human beings was partly a procedure of discovery and of development. Early human beings developed from a species of foraging hominids which were currently bipedal, with a brain mass around one third of contemporary people. Tool use stayed reasonably unchanged for many of early human history. Roughly 50,000 years earlier, making use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged, thought by numerous archaeologists to be connected to the introduction of totally modern language.