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For instance, science may study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding may then be used by engineers to develop new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other types of sophisticated innovation. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the three fields are typically considered as one for the functions of research study and reference. The precise relations between science and technology, in specific, have been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part due to the fact that the dispute can notify the financing of basic and used science.
An articulation of this viewpoint might be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Unlimited Frontier: "New items, new markets, and more tasks need continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This necessary new knowledge can be acquired just through fundamental scientific research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the clinical neighborhood). The issue stays contentious, though most experts resist the design that innovation is a result of scientific research study.