For instance, science may study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and knowledge. This new-found knowledge might then be utilized by engineers to develop new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computer systems, and other kinds of innovative technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers might both be considered technologists ; the three fields are frequently thought about as one for the functions of research and referral. The specific relations between science and technology, in specific, have actually been disputed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part due to the fact that the argument can notify the funding of standard and applied science.
An expression of this approach might be discovered explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New items, brand-new industries, and more tasks require continuous additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This essential new understanding can be obtained just through fundamental clinical research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to money science for particular jobs (initiatives withstood by the scientific neighborhood). The problem stays controversial, though the majority of analysts resist the design that innovation is an outcome of scientific research.