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For example, science might study the circulation of electrons in electrical conductors by utilizing already-existing tools and understanding. This new-found understanding may then be used by engineers to develop brand-new tools and machines such as semiconductors, computers, and other types of innovative technology. In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be thought about technologists ; the three fields are frequently considered as one for the purposes of research and reference. The precise relations between science and innovation, in specific, have actually been debated by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part due to the fact that the dispute can notify the funding of fundamental and applied science.
An articulation of this approach might be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Limitless Frontier: "New products, brand-new markets, and more jobs require constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This necessary brand-new knowledge can be obtained just through fundamental clinical research study." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards efforts to money science for particular tasks (initiatives withstood by the scientific community). The problem stays contentious, though the majority of analysts withstand the design that technology is a result of scientific research.