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The development of technology might bring into play lots of fields of understanding, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historic knowledge, to attain some practical result. Innovation is often a consequence of science and engineering, although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields. For instance, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors by using already-existing tools and knowledge.

In this sense, researchers and engineers might both be considered technologists []; the three fields are frequently considered as one for the purposes of research study and recommendation. The precise relations in between science and innovation, in particular, have been discussed by researchers, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the financing of standard and applied science.

An articulation of this approach might be discovered clearly in Vannevar Bush's writing on postwar science policy, Science The Endless Frontier: "New items, brand-new markets, and more jobs require constant additions to understanding of the laws of nature ... This vital brand-new understanding can be acquired only through basic scientific research." In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for particular tasks (efforts resisted by the scientific community).

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History Paleolithic (2. 5 Ma 10 ka) The usage of tools by early people was partly a procedure of discovery and of advancement. Early humans progressed from a types of foraging hominids which were already bipedal, with a brain mass around one third of contemporary humans. Tool use remained fairly the same for the majority of early human history.

Stone tools A campfire, typically utilized to cook food Hominids began using primitive stone tools countless years ago. The earliest stone tools were little bit more than a fractured rock, however around 75,000 years ago, pressure flaking offered a way to make much finer work. Fire The discovery and use of fire, an easy energy source with lots of profound uses, was a turning point in the technological advancement of mankind.

Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to prepare their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that might be consumed. Clothing and shelter Other technological advances made throughout the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both innovations can not be dated exactly, however they were a crucial to humankind's development.